1. Major theories in memory research
    1. A structural view of memory -- the modal model, 1960s, 1970s
    2. A processing view of memory, 1970s-
    3. A systems view of memory -- multiple memory systems, 1980s-
  2. A structural view of memory, the modal model
    1. Waugh and Norman (1965), probe digit task, prevent rehearsal
      1. Primary and secondary memory, see Fig. 1-2
    2. Atkinson and Shiffrin's multistore model (1968), see Fig. 2-1
      1. Flow of information between three interrelated stores
      2. Sensory store -> short-term store <-> long-term store
      3. Sensory store: iconic memory, < 500 ms
      4. STS: a combination of the idea of primary memory with the computer metaphor of memory
        1. limited capacity
        2. short duration
        3. primarily verbal in nature
        4. a buffer where information could be temporarily stored
      5. STS: phonological coding
      6. LTS: semantic coding
    3. The serial position curve
      1. The most systematic body of evidence favouring the idea of STS and LTS comes from exp using free recall task (serial presentation of items for about 2s each, S is asked to recall the items in any order)
      2. Recency: the high level of recall found for the last few items in the list
      3. Primacy: enhanced recall found for the first few items in the list
      4. Functional double dissociation, 3 Fig. (Parkin, 1993, page 16, 17)
        1. Variations in word frequency, presentation rate, list length, affected primacy, but not recency, see Fig. 2-2
        2. Distraction affect recency but not primacy, see Fig. 2-3
        3. amnesic patient: impaired recall of earlier items, but normal recency, see Fig. 2-4
  3. A processing view of memory
    1. Craik and Lockhart (1972) offered the 1st detailed view suggesting that processing was more important than the underlying theoretical structure.
      1. Conceptualized memory as the result of successive series analyses, each at a deeper level than the previous one.
      2. The deeper the level, the more durable the resulting memory
      3. The level of processing view assumes that rehearsal can be relatively unimportant
      4. Most informative research will occur when the experimenter has control over the processing
        1. use of incidental learning procedure
    2. Hyde and Jenkins's experiment (1973)
      1. Design
        1. To-be-remembered items were 24 common words
        2. Free recall
        3. Groups differed primarily in the orienting instructions
          1. checking the words for the presence of E or G
          2. identifying the part of speech
          3. rate the frequency
          4. rate the pleasantness
          5. control group: told to remember the words for a later test
        4. Groups also differed in whether they were told in advance of the free recall test
      2. Results, see Fig. 2-5 (Neath, 1998, page 113)
        1. the deeper the level of processing, the more words were recalled
        2. incidental pleasantness condition recalled as many as the intentional control condition
        3. little difference between the incidental and intentional groups for the same orienting instructions