THE HIPPOCAMPAL SYSTEM AND THE DECLARATIVE-PROCEDUAL MEMORY
DISTINCTION IN HUMANS
- An Example of Parameter Sensitivity: Graf, Squire, and Mandler (1984) Word-stem
- Two different measures of retention of certain words
- Those words' three initial letters form the initial stem of several different words (not
included on the study list). E.g,
- motel - > mother, ...
- cyclone -> cycle, ...
- Ss were presented with a list of such words to study and were then tested in two
- cued-recall condition (instructions were to use the word stems as cues to help
them recall items that had been on the list of studied words)
- impaired performance by amnesic patients
- word completion condition (instructions were to report the first word that come
to mind that completes each stem)
- intact performance by amnesic patients, See Fig. 2-27
- Ss are encouraged to compare each of the stems to the stored
representation of whole words
- This requires representation of the relations among these arbitrarily
- and required flexible manipulation of these representations to permit their
comparison with each stems.
- word completion
- through a facilitation of the word-identification process for previously
- expressed when (and only when) producing those words again.
- Not require that S be capable of judging that the words had been
previously presented, or express a memory representation in any other
- Skill Learning
- Ss are challenged on multiple occasions to solve some type of problem or
perform some repetitive task, and
- the speed and efficacy of their solution performance is evaluated across trials.
- Perceptual-Motor Learning
- Mirror tracing, See Fig. 2-28
- Rotary pursuit, See Fig. 2-29, 2-30
- Serial reaction time task, See Fig. 2-31
- Perceptual Skills
- Mirror reading, See Fig.2-32, 2-33
- Cognitive Skills
- Tower of Hanoi puzzle, See Fig. 2-34, 2-35
- Repetition Priming
- Complete word stems, or word fragments
- Identify briefly presented or visually degraded words or picture, see Fig 2-36, 2-37
- Bias toward previously studied items in spelling, category, drawing, see Fig 2-38