Dr. Laurel J. Trainor, Professor

Director, Auditory Development Lab

 

Related Links

Publications

Cirelli, L.K., Einarson, K.M. & Trainor, L. J. (2014). Interpersonal synchrony increases prosocial behavior in infants. Developmental Science, 1-9. Full text pdf

Cirelli, L.K., Bosnyak, D., Manning, F.C., Spinelli, C., Marie, C., Fujioka, T., Ghahremani, A & Trainor, L. J. (2014).Beat-induced fluctuations in auditory cortical beta-band activity: using EEG to measure age-related changes. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1-9. Full text pdf

Marie, C. & Trainor, L. J. (2014). Early development of polyphonic sound encoding and the high voice superiority effect. Neuropsychologica, 57, 50-58. Full text pdf

Corrigall, K. A. & Trainor, L. J. (2014). Enculturation to musical pitch structure in young children: Evidence from behavioral and electrophysiological methods. Developmental Science, 17(1), 142-158. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., Marie, C., Bruce, I. C., & Bidelman, G. M. (2014). Explaining the high-voice superiority effect in polyphonic music: Evidence from cortical evoked potentials and peripheral auditory models. Hearing Research, 308, 60-70. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J. (2013). Development of pitch perception and the processing of simultaneous sounds in infancy. Canadian Hearing Report, 8(4), 35-36. Full text pdf

Butler, B. E. & Trainor, L. J. (2013). Brief pitch-priming facilitates infants' discrimination of pitch-evoking noise: Evidence from event-related potentials. Brain and Cognition, 83, 271-278. Full text pdf

Friendly, R. H., Rendall, D. & Trainor, L. J. (2013). Plasticity after perceptual narrowing for voice perception: Reinstating the ability to discriminate monkeys by their voices at 12 months of age. Frontiers in Auditory Cognitive Neuroscience, 4 (718), 1-18. Full text pdf

Friendly, R. H., Rendall, D. & Trainor, L. J. (2013). Learning to differentiate individuals by their voices: Infants' individuation of native- and foreign-species voices. Developmental Psychobiology. Early View doi: 10.1002/dev.21164 Full text pdf

Butler, B. E., Nicole A. Folland, & Trainor, L. J. (2013). Development of pitch processing: Infants' discrimination of iterated rippled noise stimuli with unresolved spectral content. Hearing Research, 304, 1-6. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., & He, C. (2013). Auditory and musical development. In P. D. Zelazo (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of developmental psychology: Body and mind (Volume 1) (pp.310-337). Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.

Trainor, L. J., & Hannon, E. E. (2013). Musical Development. In D. Deutsch (Ed.), The Psychology of Music (3rd ed.) (pp. 423-498). London, UK: Elsevier Inc. Full text pdf

Marie, C., Fujioka, T., Herrington, L., & Trainor, L. J. (2012). The high-voice superiority effect in polyphonic music is influenced by experience: A comparison of musicians who play Soprano-range compared to Bass-range instruments. Psychomusicology: Music, Mind & Brain, 22(2), 97-104. Full text pdf

DePape, A. R., Hall, G. B. C., Tillman, B., & Trainor, L. J. (2012). Auditory processing in high-functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. PLOS ONE, 7, 1-17. Full text pdf

Butler, B. E., & Trainor, L. J. (2012). Sequencing the cortical processing of pitch-evoking stimuli using EEG analysis and source estimation. Frontiers in Psychology, 3, 1-13. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., Marie, C., Gerry, D., Whiskin, E., & Unrau, A. (2012). Becoming musically enculturated: Effects of music classes for infants on brain and behavior. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1252, 129-138. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J. (2012). Musical experience, plasticity, and maturation: Issues in measuring developmental change using EEG and MEG. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1252, 25-36. Full text pdf

Gerry, D., Unrau, A., & Trainor, L. J. (2012). Active music classes in infancy enhance musical, communicative and social development. Developmental Science, 15, 398-407. Full text pdf

Marie, C., & Trainor, L. J. (2012). Development of simultaneous pitch encoding: Infants show a high voice superiority effect. Cerebral Cortex, Early View doi:10.1093/cercor/bhs050. Full text pdf

DePape, A. R., Chen, A. Hall, G. B. C., & Trainor, L. J. (2012). Use of prosody and information structure in high functioning adults with Autism in relation to language ability. Frontiers in Language Sciences, 3, 72. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00072. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J. (2012). Predictive information processing is a fundamental learning mechanism present in early development: Evidence from infants. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 83, 256-258. Full text pdf

Fujioka, T., Trainor, L. J., Large, E. W., & Ross, B. (2012). Internalized timing of isochronous sounds is represented in neuromagnetic beta oscillations. The Journal of Neuroscience, 32, 1791-1802. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., & Unrau, A. J. (2012). Development of pitch and music perception. In L. Werner, R. R. Fay & A. N. Popper (Eds.), Springer Handbook of Auditory Research: Human Auditory Development (pp. 223-254). New York: Springer. Full text pdf

Folland, N. A., Butler, B. E., Smith, N. A., & Trainor, L. J. (2012). Processing simultaneous auditory objects: Infants' ability to detect mistunings in harmonic complexes. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 131, 993-997. Full text pdf

Beheshti, S., Ravan, M., Reilly, J. P., & Trainor, L. J. (2011). Mean-square error in periodogram approaches with adaptive windowing. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 59(3), 923-935. Full text pdf

Corrigall, K. A., & Trainor, L. J. (2011). Associations between length of music training and reading skills in children. Music Perception, 29, 147-155. Full text pdf

Lappe, C., Trainor, L. J., Herholz, S. C., & Pantev, C. (2011). Cortical plasticity induced by short-term multimodal musical rhythm training. PLoS ONE, 6, e21493. Full text pdf

Ravan, M., Reilly, J. P., Trainor, L. J., & Khodayari-Rostamabad, A. (2011). A machine learning approach for distinguishing age of infants using auditory evoked potentials. Clinical Neurophysiology, 122, 2139-2150. Full text pdf

Trainor, L.J., Lee, K., & Bosnyak, D.J. (2011). Cortical plasticity in 4-month-old infants: Specific effects of experience with musical timbres. Brain Topography, 24, 192-203. Full text pdf

Smith, N. A., & Trainor, L. J. (2011). Auditory stream segregation improves infants' selective attention to target tones amid distrators. Infancy, 16, 655-668. Full text pdf

Fujioka, T., Mourad, N., He, C., & Trainor, L. J. (2011). Comparison of artifact correction methods for infant EEG applied to extraction of event-related potential signals. Clinical Neurophysiology, 122, 43-51. Full text pdf

Fujioka, T., Mourad, N., & Trainor, L. J. (2011). Development of auditory-specific brain rhythms in infants. European Journal of Neuroscience, 33, 521-529. Full text pdf

Corrigall, K. A., & Trainor, L. J. (2010). Musical enculturation in preschool children: Acquisition of key and harmonic knowledge. Music Perception, 28, 195-200. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., & Corrigall, K. A. (2010). Music acquisition and effects of musical experience. In M. Riess-Jones & R. R. Fay (Eds.), Springer Handbook of Auditory Research: Music Perception (pp. 89-128). Heidelberg: Springer. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J. (2010). Using electroencephalography (EEG) to measure maturation of auditory cortex in infants: Processing pitch, duration and sound location. In R. E. Tremblay, R. G. Barr, R.deV. Peters, M. Boivin, Eds., Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development (pp. 1-5). Montreal, Quebec: Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development. Full text (English) pdf or Full text (French) pdf

Shahin, A. J., Trainor, L. J., Roberts, L. E., Backer, K. C., & Miller, L. M. (2010). Development of auditory phase-locked activity for music sounds. Journal of Neurophysiology, 103, 218-229. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J. (2010). The emotional origins of music. Physics of Life Reviews, 7, 44-45. Full text pdf

Gerry, D. W., Faux, A. L, & Trainor, L. J. (2010). Effects of Kindermusik training on infants' rhythmic enculturation. Developmental Science, 13, 545-551. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., & Zatorre, R. (2009). The neurobiological basis of musical expectations: From probabilities to emotional meaning. In S. Hallen, I. Cross, & M. Thaut (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of Music Psychology (pp. 171-182). Oxford University Press. Full text pdf

Plantinga, J., & Trainor, L. J. (2009). Melody recognition by two-month-old infants. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 125, EL58-62. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., Shahin, A., & Roberts, L. E. (2009). Understanding the benefits of musical training: Effects on oscillatory brain activity. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1169, 133-142. Full text pdf

Corrigall, K., & Trainor, L. J. (2009). Effects of musical training on key and harmony perception. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1169, 164-168. Full text pdf

Tew, S., Fujioka, T., He, C., & Trainor, L. (2009). Neural representation of transposed melody in infants at 6 months of age. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1169, 287-290. Full text pdf

Fujioka, T., Trainor, L. J., Large, E. W., & Ross, B. (2009). Beta and gamma rhythms in human auditory cortex during musical beat processing. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1169, 89-92. Full text pdf

He, C., & Trainor, L. J. (2009). Finding the pitch of the missing fundamental in infants. The Journal of Neuroscience, 29, 7718-7722. Full text pdf

He, C., Hotson, L., & Trainor, L. J. (2009). Development of infant mismatch responses to auditory pattern changes between 2 and 4 months old. The European Journal of Neuroscience, 29, 861-867. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., & Unrau, A. J. (2009). Extracting the beat: An experience-dependent complex integration of multisensory information involving multiple levels of the nervous system. Empirical Musicology Review, 4, 32-36. Full text pdf

He, C., Hotson, L., & Trainor, L. J. (2009). Maturation of cortical mismatch mismatch responses to occasional pitch change in early infancy: Effects of presentation rate and magnitude of change. Neuropsychologia, 47, 218-229. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., Gao, X., Lei, J., Lehtovarara, K., & Harris, L. R. (2009). The primal role of the vestibular system in determining musical rhythm. Cortex, 45, 35-43. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J. (2008). Event related potential measures in auditory developmental research. In L. Schmidt & S. Segalowitz (Eds.), Developmental Psychophysiology: Theory, systems and methods (pp. 69-102). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Smith, N. A., & Trainor, L. J. (2008). Infant-directed speech is modulated by infant feedback. Infancy, 13, 410-420. Full text pdf

Smith, N. A., Trainor, L. J., Gray, K. Plantinga, J., & Shore, D. (2008). Stimulus, task and learning effects on measures of temporal resolution: Implications for predictors of language outcome. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 51, 1630-1642. Full text pdf

Lappe, C., Herholz, S. C., Trainor, L. J., Pantev, C. (2008). Cortical Plasticity Induced by Short-Term Unimodal and Multimodal Musical Training. The Journal of Neuroscience, 28, 9632-9639. Full text pdf

Plantinga, J. & Trainor, L. J. (2008). Infants' memory for isolated tones and the effects of interference. Music Perception, 26, 121-128. Full text pdf

Phillips-Silver, J., & Trainor, L. J. (2008). Vestibular influence on auditory metrical interpretation. Brain and Cognition, 67, 94-102. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J. (2008). The neural roots of music. Nature, 453, 598-599. Full text pdf

Fujioka, T., Trainor, L., & Ross, B. (2008). Simultaneous pitches are encoded separately in auditory cortex: An MMNm study. NeuroReport, 19, 361-366. Full text pdf

Shahin, A. J., Roberts, L. R., Chau, W., Trainor, L. J., & Miller, L. (2008). Musical training leads to the development of timbre-specific gamma band activity. NeuroImage, 41, 113-122. Full text pdf

Santesso, D. L., Schmidt, L. A., & Trainor, L. J. (2007). Frontal brain electrical activity (EEG) and heart rate in response to affective infant-directed (ID) speech in 9-month-old infants. Brain & Cognition, 65, 14-21. Full text pdf

Hannon, E. E., & Trainor, L. J. (2007). Music acquisition: effects of enculturation and formal training on development. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11, 466- 472. Full text pdf

Phillips-Silver, J., & Trainor, L. J. (2007). Hearing what the body feels: Auditory encoding of rhythmic movement. Cognition, 105, 533-546. Full text pdf

He, C., Hotson, L., & Trainor. L. J. (2007). Mismatch responses to pitch changes in early infancy. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 19, 878-892. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J. (2007). Do preferred beat rate and entrainment to the beat have a common origin in movement? Empirical Musicology Review, 2(1), 17-20. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J. (2006). Innateness, learning, and the difficulty of determining whether music is an evolutionary adaptation: A commentary on Justus & Hutsler (2005) and McDermott & Hauser (2005). Music Perception, 24, 105-110. Full text pdf

Smith, N. A., Trainor, L. J., & Shore, D. I. (2006). The development of temporal resolution: Between-channel gap detection in infants and adults. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 49, 1104-1123. Full text pdf

Fujioka, T., Ross, B., Kakigi, R., Pantev, C., & Trainor, L. (2006). One year of musical training affects development of auditory cortical-evoked fields in young children. Brain, 129, 2593-2608. Full text pdf

Sonnadara, R. R., Alain, C., & Trainor, L. J. (2006). Effects of spatial separation and stimulus probability on event-related potentials elicited by occasional changes in sound location. Brain Research, 1071, 175-185. Full text pdf

Sonnadara, R. R., Alain, C., & Trainor, L. J. (2006). Occasional changes in sound location enhance middle latency evoked responses. Brain Research, 1076, 187-192 Full text pdf

Roberts, L.E., Bosnyak, D.J., Shahin, A. & Trainor L.J. (2005). Neuroplastic adaptations of the auditory system in musicians and non-musicians. In J. Syka and M. Merzenich (Eds.), Plasticity and signal representation in the auditory system. Heidelberg :Springer. Full text pdf

Shahin, A., Roberts, L. E., Pantev, C., Trainor, L. J., & Ross, B. (2005). Modulation of P2 auditory evoked responses by the spectral complexity of musical sounds, NeuroReport, 16, 1781-85. Full text pdf

Fujioka, T., Trainor, L. J., Ross, B., Kakigi, R., & Pantev, C. (2005). Automatic encoding of polyphonic melodies in musicians and non-musicians. J. of Cognitive Neuroscience, 17, 1578-1592. Full text pdf

Sonnadara, R. R., & Trainor, L. J. (2005). Perceived intensity effects in the octave illusion. Perception & Psychophysics, 67, 648 - 658. Full text pdf

Plantinga, J., & Trainor, L. J. (2005). Memory for melody: Infants use a relative pitch code. Cognition, 98, 1-11. Full text pdf

Phillips-Silver, J., & Trainor, L. J. (2005). Feeling the beat in music: Movement influences rhythm perception in infants. Science, 308, 1430. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J. (2005). Are there critical periods for music development? Developmental Psychobiology, 46, 262-278. Full text pdf

Shahin, A., Roberts, L. E., & Trainor, L. J. (2004). Enhancement of auditory cortical development by musical experience in children, NeuroReport, 15, 1917-1921. Full text pdf

Fujioka, T., Trainor, L. J., Ross, B., Kakigi, R., & Pantev, C. (2004). Musical training enchances automatic encoding of melodic contour and interval structure, J. Cognitive Neuroscience, 16, 1010-1021. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., Wu, L., & Tsang, C. D. (2004). Long-term memory for music: Infants remember tempo and timbre. Developmental Science, 7, 289-296. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., Sonnadara, R., Wiklund, K., Bondy, J., Gupta, S., Becker, S., Bruce, I. , & Haykin, S. (2004). Development of a flexible, realistic, hearing in noise test environment (R-HINT-E). Signal Processing, 84, 299-309. Full text pdf

Bondy, J., Becker, S., Bruce, I. , Trainor, L. & Haykin. S. (2004). A novel signal processing strategy for hearing aid design: NeuroCompensation. Signal Processing, 84, 1239-1253. Full text pdf

Trainor, L.J., Shahin, A., & Roberts, L. E. (2003). Effects of musical training on auditory cortex in children. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 999, 506-513. Full text pdf

Plantinga, J., & Trainor, L. J. (2003). Long-term memory for pitch in six-month-old infants. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 999, 520-521.

Pantev, C., Ross, B., Fujioka, T., Trainor, L., Schulte, M., Schulz, M. (2003). Music and learning-induced cortical plasticity. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 999, 438-450.

Trainor, L. J., & Schmidt, L. A. (2003). Processing Emotions Induced by Music. In I. Peretz and R. Zatorre, (Eds.), The Cognitive Neuroscience of Music. Oxford : Oxford U. Press, pp. 310-324. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., Shahin, A., & Roberts, L. E. (2003). Effects of musical training on the auditory cortex in children. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 999, 506-513. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., McFadden, M., Hodgson, L., Darragh, L., Barlow, J., Matsos, L., Sonnadara, R. (2003). Changes in auditory cortex and the development of mismatch negativity between 2 and 6 months of age. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 51, 5-15. Full text pdf

Shahin, A., Bosnyak, D., Trainor, L. J., & Roberts, L. E. (2003). Enhancement of neuroplastic P2 and N1c auditory evoked potentials in musicians. Journal of Neuroscience, 23, 5545-5552. Full text pdf

Schmidt, L. A., Trainor, L. J., & Santesso, D. L. (2003). Development of frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) and heart rate (ECG) responses to affective musical stimuli during the first 12 months of post-natal life. Brain and Cognition, 52, 27-32. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., McDonald, K. L., & Alain, C. (2002). Automatic and controlled processing of melodic contour and interval information measured by electrical brain activity. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14, 430-442. Full text pdf

Tsang, C. D., & Trainor, L. J. (2002). Spectral slope discrimination in infancy: Sensitivity to socially important timbres. Infant Behavior and Development, 25, 183-194 Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., Tsang, C. D., & Cheung, V. H. W. (2002). Preference for consonance in 2- and 4-month-old infants. Music Perception, 20, 187-194. Full text pdf

Anvari, S., Trainor, L. J., Woodside, J., & Levy, B. A. (2002). Relations among musical skills, phonological processing, and early reading ability in preschool children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 83, 111-130. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., & Desjardins, R. N. (2002). Pitch characteristics of infant-directed speech affect infants' ability to discriminate vowels. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 9, 335-340. Full text pdf

Tsang, C. D., Trainor, L. J., Santesso, D. L., Tasker, S. L., & Schmidt, L. A. (2001). Frontal EEG responses as a function of affective musical features. In The Biological Foundations of Music (R. Zatorre & I. Peretz, Eds.), Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 930, 439-442.

Trainor, L. J., McDonald, K., & Alain, C. (2001). Electrical brain activity associated with automatic and controlled processing of melodic contour and interval. In The Biological Foundations of Music (R. Zatorre & I. Peretz, Eds.), Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 930, 429-432.

Trainor, L. J., Samuel, S. S., Galay, L., Hevenor, S. J., Desjardins, R. N., & Sonnadara, R. (2001). Measuring temporal resolution in infants using mismatch negativity. NeuroReport, 12, 2443-2448. Full text pdf

Schmidt, L. A., & Trainor, L. J. (2001). Frontal brain electrical activity (EEG) distinguishes valence and intensity of musical emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 15, 487-500. Full text pdf

O’Neill, C., Trainor, L. J., & Trehub, S. E. (2001). Infants' responsiveness to fathers' singing. Music Perception, 18, 409-425.

Trainor, L. J., Austin, C. M., & Desjardins, R. N. (2000). Is infant-directed speech prosody a result of the vocal expression of emotion? Psychological Science, 11, 188-195. Full Text pdf

Trainor, L. J., & Adams, B. (2000). Infants' and adults' use of duration and intensity cues in the segmentation of auditory patterns. Perception & Psychophysics, 62, 333-340. Full text pdf

Desjardins, R. N., Trainor, L. J., Hevenor, S. J., & Polak, C. P. (1999). Using mismatch negativity to measure auditory temporal resolution thresholds. NeuroReport, 10, 2079-2082. Full text pdf

Rock, A. M. L., Trainor, L. J., & Addison, T. (1999). Distinctive messages in infant-directed lullabies and play songs. Developmental Psychology, 35, 527-534. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., Desjardins, R. N., & Rockel, C. (1999). A comparison of contour and interval processing in musicians and non-musicians using event-related potentials. Australian Journal of Psychology: Special Issue on Music as a Brain and Behavioural System, 51, 147-153 . Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., & Zacharias, C. A. (1998). Infants prefer higher-pitched singing. Infant Behavior and Development, 21, 799-805. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., & Heinmiller, B. M. (1998). The development of evaluative responses to music: Infants prefer to listen to consonance over dissonance. Infant Behavior and Development, 21, 77-88. Full text pdf

Trehub, S. E., & Trainor, L. J. (1998). Singing to infants: Lullabies and playsongs. Advances in Infancy Research, 12, 43-77. Full txt pdf

Pang, E. W., Edmonds, G. E., Desjardins, R., Khan, S. C., Trainor, L. J., & Taylor, M. J. (1998). Mismatch negativity to speech stimuli in 8-month-old infants and adults. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 29, 227-236. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J. (1997). The effect of frequency ratio on infants' and adults' discrimination of simultaneous intervals. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 23, 1427-38. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., Clark, E. D., Huntley, A., & Adams, B. (1997). The acoustic basis of preferences for infant-directed singing. Infant Behavior and Development, 20, 383-396. Full text pdf

Trehub, S. E., Unyk, A. M., Kamenetsky, S. B., Hill, D. S., Trainor, L. J., Henderson, J. L., & Saraza, M. (1997). Mothers' and fathers' singing to infants. Developmental Psychology, 33, 500-507. Full text pdf

Schellenberg, E. G., & Trainor, L. J. (1996). Sensory consonance and the perceptual similarity of complex-tone harmonic intervals: Tests of adult and infant listeners. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America , 100, 3321-3328. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J. (1996). Effects of harmonics on relative pitch discrimination in a musical context. Perception & Psychophysics, 58, 704-712. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J. (1996). Infant preferences for infant-directed versus noninfant-directed playsongs and lullabies. Infant Behavior and Development, 19, 83-92 Full text pdf

Trehub, S. E., Schneider, B. A., Trainor, L. J., & Morrongiello, B. A. (1996). Threshold estimation in the preschool period: The PEST Procedure. Journal of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, 20, 173-179. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., & Trehub, S. E. (1994). Key membership and implied harmony in Western tonal music: Developmental perspectives. Perception & Psychophysics, 56, 125-132. Full text pdf

Trehub, S. E. & Trainor, L. J. (1993). Listening strategies in infancy: The roots of language and musical development. In S. McAdams & E. Bigand (Eds.), Cognitive aspects of human audition. London : Oxford U. Press, pp. 278-327.

Trainor, L. J., & Trehub, S. E. (1993). Musical context effects in infants and adults: Key distance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 19, 615-26. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., & Trehub, S. E. (1993). What mediates adults’ and infants’ superior processing of the major triad? Music Perception, 11, 185-196. Full text pdf

Trehub, S. E., Trainor, L. J., & Unyk, A. (1993). Music and speech processing in the first year of life. Advances in child development and behavior, 24, 1-35.

Trehub, S. E., Unyk, A. M., & Trainor, L. J. (1993). Adults identify infant-directed music across cultures. Infant Behavior and Development, 16, 193-211.

Trehub, S. E., Unyk, A. M., & Trainor, L. J. (1993). Maternal singing in cross-cultural perspective. Infant Behavior and Development, 16, 285-295.

Trainor, L. J., & Trehub, S. E. (1992). A comparison of infants' and adults' sensitivity to Western musical structure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 18, 394-402. Full text pdf

Trainor, L. J., & Trehub, S. E. (1992). The development of referential meaning in music. Music Perception, 9, 455-470.

Unyk, A. M., Trehub, S. E., Trainor, L. J., & Schellenberg, E. G. (1992). Lullabies and simplicity: A cross-cultural perspective. Psychology of Music, 20, 15-28. Full text pdf

Trehub, S. E. & Trainor, L. J. (1990). Rules for listening in infancy. In J. Enns (Ed.), The development of attention: Research and theory (87-119). Amsterdam : Elsevier Science Publishers.

Trehub, S. E., Thorpe, L. A., & Trainor, L. J. (1990). Infants' perception of good and bad melodies. Psychomusicology, 9, 5-19.

Trainor, L. J., & Trehub, S. E. (1989). Aging and auditory temporal sequencing: Ordering the elements of repeating tone patterns. Perception & Psychophysics, 45, 417-426.